Educationally Significant Late Effects of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Brief Review of Selected Literature Leukemia, which may be classified according to duration as either chronic or acute, is a progressive and potentially fatal disease of the blood-forming tissues. Acute leukemias, the most common pediatric malignancies (Buttsworth, Murdoch, & Ozanne, 1993), may be further classified according to cell types involved as acute lymphoblastic leukemia ... Article
Article  |   April 01, 1997
Educationally Significant Late Effects of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Brief Review of Selected Literature
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Thomas H. Cameron
    Developmental Evaluation Center and Children’s Special Health Services Speech and Hearing Clinic, Durham, NC
Article Information
Articles
Article   |   April 01, 1997
Educationally Significant Late Effects of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Brief Review of Selected Literature
SIG 1 Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, April 1997, Vol. 4, 10-13. doi:10.1044/lle4.1.10
SIG 1 Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, April 1997, Vol. 4, 10-13. doi:10.1044/lle4.1.10
Leukemia, which may be classified according to duration as either chronic or acute, is a progressive and potentially fatal disease of the blood-forming tissues. Acute leukemias, the most common pediatric malignancies (Buttsworth, Murdoch, & Ozanne, 1993), may be further classified according to cell types involved as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), or acute monomyeloblastic leukemia (AML). ALL accounts for around 80% of new childhood leukemia cases diagnosed each year, with ANLL comprising the majority of the remainder (Neglia & Robison, 1988).
While the acute leukemias may occur in all age groups, ALL is primarily seen in children (Poplack, 1985). In the United States and Great Britain it has been noted since the 1920s that the incidence of ALL reaches a peak in youngsters between 2 and 5 years of age (Neglia & Robison, 1988). Notably, a similar peak is absent in Africa and other developing nations which has increased speculation that ALL may be associated in some way with modernization (Ramot & Magrath, 1982) and socioeconomic factors (McWhuter, 1982). ALL is seen more often in males than in females, with an annual incidence in the United States of 22.3 per million for males under 15 years of age, and of 15.7 per million for females under 15. It is also 20% to 30% more common in youngsters who are white than black, although Neglia and Robison (1988)  suggest that this may be associated with socioeconomic factors rather than race per se.
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