Nonlinear Phonology: Application and Outcomes Evaluation Phonological theories are constructed to account for speech sound inventories and alternation patterns within and across languages. In the clinical realm, such theories have provided useful frameworks for analysis of children’s speech patterns and selection of goals for treatment (e.g., Barlow & Gierut, 1999; Bernhardt & Stemberger, 1998, 2000; Edwards ... Article
Article  |   April 01, 2003
Nonlinear Phonology: Application and Outcomes Evaluation
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Barbara Handford Bernhardt
    School of Audiology and Speech Sciences, University of British ColumbiaVancouver, BC, Canada
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Treatment Outcomes
Article   |   April 01, 2003
Nonlinear Phonology: Application and Outcomes Evaluation
SIG 1 Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, April 2003, Vol. 10, 26-30. doi:10.1044/lle10.1.26
SIG 1 Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, April 2003, Vol. 10, 26-30. doi:10.1044/lle10.1.26
Phonological theories are constructed to account for speech sound inventories and alternation patterns within and across languages. In the clinical realm, such theories have provided useful frameworks for analysis of children’s speech patterns and selection of goals for treatment (e.g., Barlow & Gierut, 1999; Bernhardt & Stemberger, 1998, 2000; Edwards & Shriberg, 1983; Gierut, 1998; Grunwell, 1985; Hodson & Paden, 1991; Ingram, 1981). Phonological theories have sometimes suggested specific therapeutic approaches, such as the cycles approach (Hodson & Paden, 1991), paired contrasts (Elbert & Gierut, 1986), metaphonological awareness (Dean & Howell, 1986), syllable structure interventions (Bernhardt, 1994). Advances in phonological theories provide new clinical opportunities for phonological intervention. In the 1990s, studies were conducted that applied nonlinear phonological theories to intervention (Bernhardt, 1990, 1992; Bernhardt & Stemberger, 1998, 2000; Edwards, 1995; Major & Bernhardt, 1998; Von Bremen, 1990). Detailed descriptions of clinical applications of nonlinear phonology are available elsewhere (e.g., Bernhardt, 1992; Bernhardt & Gilbert, 1992; Bernhardt & Holdgrafer, 2001a, 2001b; Bernhardt & Stemberger, 1998, 2000; Bernhardt & Stoel-Gammon, 1994). The first section of this article includes an overview of major concepts and applications of those concepts in the intervention studies. The second section describes the studies briefly and presents highlights of the results.
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